According to the Bank of Thailand (BOT) Act B.E.2485 as amended by B.E.2551.
1. Print and issue banknotes and other security documents
The BOT prints and issues banknotes and other security documents under the enforcement of the Currency Act and has sole rights to print and issue banknotes in the Kingdom.
2. Promote monetary stability and formulate monetary policies.
The BOT implements monetary policy as specified by the Monetary Policy Committee as follows : mobilizing the deposits, determining the interest rate for loans to financial institutions, trading foreign exchange and exchanging for the future cash flow, borrowing foreign exchange in order to maintain the monetary stability, borrowing money in order to implement the monetary policy, trading securities as necessary and exchanging for the future cash flow in order to control the money supply in the country’s financial system, and borrowing or lending the securities with or without returns.
3. Manage the BOT’s assets
The BOT manages its assets (excluding the assets within the currency reserve according to the Currency Act) and invests such assets for returns by realizing the security, liquidity, return on asset, and management risks.
4. Provide banking facilities to the government and act as the registrar for the government bonds
The BOT provides banking facilities to the government in terms of depository and lending facilities for the Ministry of Finance, acts as the custodian for the government, acts as the representative of the government for investment in assets and FX, trades and transfers the bill of exchange, securities, and share certificate, and controls and oversees FX. In additions, the BOT may provide banking facilities to the state enterprise or other government agencies. Moreover, the BOT acts as the registrar for the government bonds by acting as the government representative in purchasing and selling government bonds, paying principal and interest, or acts as the registrar of state enterprises, specialized financial institutions, or other government agencies.
5. Provide banking facilities for the financial institutions.
The BOT provide banking facilities for the financial institutions by acting as lender of the last resort for the financial institutions, acting as the custodian for the financial institutions, and ordering the financial institutions to report or explain about the assets, liabilities or contingent liabilities.
6. Establish or Support the establishment of payment system
The BOT establishes or supports the establishment of payment system, electronics clearing system, and administers such systems for safety and efficiency.
7. Supervise and examine the financial institutions
The BOT supervises, examines, and analyzes the financial status and performance, and risk management system of the financial institutions in order to promote financial institutions stability.
8. Manage the country’s foreign exchange rate under the foreign exchange system and manage assets in the currency reserve according to the Currency Act.
9. Control the foreign exchange according to the exchange control act.
A. THE HEAD OFFICE
1. Monetary Policy Group
- Provides suggestions for conducting the monetary policy and foreign exchange policy.
- Evaluates the impacts of various measures on the economic stability and growth.
2. Financial Markets Operations Group
- Conducts monetary and foreign exchange policies related to both domestic and international markets.
- Manages the international reserves and monitors FX operations.
- Enforces the Exchange Control Act and Measure to prevent speculation on Thai Baht.
3. Financial Institutions Policy Group
- Formulates the regulatory policies and criteria for the supervision of financial institutions and payment systems in compliance with the international standard in order to foster the stability, strength and validity of financial institutions and payment systems, and also their competitive abilities in the market.
4. Supervision Group
- Supervises, examines, and analyzes performance and risk management of the financial institutions and payment system in compliance with the international standard in order to maintain the soundness of financial institutions and payment systems.
5. Management Assistance Group
- Supports various management systems of the BOT in terms of top management system, public relations, BOT’s legal issues and other internal operations.
6. Information Technology Group
- Develop and remain the main service provider of payment systems, bond and deposit systems.
- Conducts Statistics such as Economic and Financial Statistics, Financial Institutions Statistics.
- Undertakes the Bot’s Information Technology System.
7. Human resource and Organization development Group
- Manages and develops the BOT’s human resources and organization.
8. Planning and Budgeting Group
- Conducts the Bot’s planning, budgeting and accounting.
- Conducts Financial Consumer Protection.
- Supervises the operations of the BOT regional offices.
9. Banknote Management Group
- Issues and manages issues banknotes and other security documents under the enforcement of the Currency Act
10. Internal Audit Group
- Develops the system of the Bot’s governance and internal audit.
B. BANK OF THAILAND REGIONAL OFFICES under the supervision of Planning and Budgeting Group
The role of the regional offices is to study, analyze and follow up the regions’ economic and monetary conditions. Supervise banking and finance industry, protect financial consumers and control scope of banking industry in the regional areas. Including a study and monitor of illegal financial activities and the financial status of any business groups impacting the economic and financial conditions of the local areas. These offices are as follows.
1. The Northern Region Office
Located in Chiang Mai, covers the areas of Lampang, Phayao, Phrae, Nan, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Phichit, Tak, Phisanulok, Mae Hong Son, Nakhon Sawan, Kamphaeng Phet, Sukhothai, Uttaradit, Phetchabun and Uthai Thani.
2. The Northeastern Region Office
Located in Khon Kaen, covers the areas of Khon Kaen, Udon Thani, Nongkhai, Loei, Sakon Nakhon, Kalasin, Bueng Kan, Maha Sarakham, Roi Et, Nhong Bua Lumpoo, Nakhon Ratchasima, Chaiyaphum, Buriram, Surin, Yasothon, Ubon Ratchathani, Sisaket, Mukdahan, Nakhon Phanom and Umnajareon.
3. The Southern Region Office
Located in Hat Yai, Songkhla, covers the areas of Songkhla, Trang, Phattalung, Satun, Yala, Pattani, Narathiwat, Surat Thani, Chumphon, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Ranong, Phangnga, Krabi and Phuket.
C. BANKNOTE OPERATIONS CENTERS under the supervision of Banknote Management Group
The Banknote Operations Centers are responsible for managing and distributing new banknotes to local commercial banks, counting and disposing unfit banknotes, verifying damaged and counterfeit banknotes, and managing and controlling the redemption of damaged or mutilated banknotes to ensure that the banknotes in circulation are in good condition. A Banknote Operations Center in Bangkok and nine Banknote Operations Centers are located in other regions across the country (Rayong, Chiang Mai, Phisanulok, Khon Kaen, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Ratchasima, Surat Thani, Phangnga, and Hat yai).
D. OVERSEAS REPRESENTATIVE OFFICES under the supervision of the Financial Markets Operations Group
The overseas Representative Offices are responsible for studying, monitoring, and analyzing the general economic condition and technical developments aboard for the benefit of international reserve management, and contacting with financial institutions and foreign investors, and other assignments. These offices are as follows.
1. The Bank of Thailand, New York Representative Office in USA
2. The Bank of Thailand, London Representative Office in UK
3. The Bank of Thailand, Beijing Representative Office in People’s Republic of China